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Some common PCB laminates used for PC Boards are:

Double sided Laminate
Two layers of copper tracks, one each side of the board
 
Plated Through Hole
PTH - each hole is copper plated providing an electrical connection between two sides of the PCB
 
Fibreglass-resin laminate (FR4)
 
Solder Mask Over Bare Copper
SMOBC - colored (often green) insulating ink everywhere except connections
 
Component legend
Identifying lettering, component outlines and values in white or yellow ink
 
Tinned
Tinning is application of Solder to all exposed copper, increasing solderability
 
Hot oil levelled
Hot oil - or hot air - levelling makes the tinning flat, so that surface mount components can be positioned reliably.

Different methods of PCB construction:

Conventional
A rigid PCB of thickness 0.062", with wire-leaded components mounted on only one side of the PCB, with all the leads through holes, soldered and clipped. Conventional circuitry is generally easier to debug and repair than Surface mount.
 
Surface Mount Technology (SMT) or devices (SMD)
A PCB with tag-leaded components soldered flush to PCB pads. Holes are still needed on the PCB, but not where the component leads are attached. Surface mount circuitry is generally smaller than conventional. Surface mount is generally more suited to automated assembly than conventional.
 
Surface mount & conventional mix
In practice, most boards are a mix of surface mount and conventional components. This can have its disadvantages as the two technologies require different methods of insertion and soldering.
 
Double sided Laminate
A bare PCB laminate having tracks on both sides, normally with PTH holes connecting circuitry on the two sides together.
 
Double sided Component Assembly
Mounting components on both sides of the PCB. Normally only surface mount circuitry would be mounted on both sides of a PCB.
 
Multi-layer
A PCB Laminate may be manufactured with more than two layers of copper tracks by using a sandwich construction. The cost of the laminate reflects the number of layers. The extra layers may be used to route more complicated circuitry, and/or distribute the power supply more effectively.
 
Gold plated
Certain areas on a PCB may be gold plated for use as contact pads. Unless the whole PCB is gold plated before etching, this technique is limited in its application, normally, to pads on the edge of a PCB, as an electrolytic plating bar must be attached to the pads, and then removed part way through the PCB manufacturing process.
 
Flexible PCB
A technique used extensively with membrane keyboards, combination connector/circuit boards, and circuit boards to fit in awkward shapes - eg cameras.
 
Chip On Board (COB)
Where the IC die is attached direct to a PCB, and bond out wires from the IC connect directly to PCB lands. The chip is then covered with a black blob of epoxy. A technique used mostly with very high volume, cost sensitive applications, eg musical greeting cards.
 
Phenolic PCB
As distinct from Fibreglass, Phenolic is a cheaper PCB laminate material.
 
Daughterboard
circuit board mounted to another circuit board - such as a plug in card.

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